What is Diabetic Retinopathy?

What Is Diabetic Retinopathy?

Written By: Kierstan Boyd
Reviewed By: Ninel Z Gregori MD
Sep. 18, 2020

People with diabetes can have an eye disease called diabetic retinopathy. This is when high blood sugar levels cause damage to blood vessels in the retina. These blood vessels can swell and leak. Or they can close, stopping blood from passing through. Sometimes abnormal new blood vessels grow on the retina. All of these changes can steal your vision.

 

Stages of Diabetic Eye Disease

There are two main stages of diabetic eye disease.

NPDR (non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy)

This is the early stage of diabetic eye disease. Many people with diabetes have it.

With NPDR, tiny blood vessels leak, making the retina swell. When the macula swells, it is called macular edema. This is the most common reason why people with diabetes lose their vision.

Also with NPDR, blood vessels in the retina can close off. This is called macular ischemia. When that happens, blood cannot reach the macula. Sometimes tiny particles called exudates can form in the retina. These can affect your vision too.

If you have NPDR, your vision will be blurry.

PDR (proliferative diabetic retinopathy)

PDR is the more advanced stage of diabetic eye disease. It happens when the retina starts growing new blood vessels. This is called neovascularization. These fragile new vessels often bleed into the vitreous. If they only bleed a little, you might see a few dark floaters. If they bleed a lot, it might block all vision.

These new blood vessels can form scar tissue. Scar tissue can cause problems with the macula or lead to a detached retina.

PDR is very serious, and can steal both your central and peripheral (side) vision.

Diabetic Retinopathy Symptoms

You can have diabetic retinopathy and not know it. This is because it often has no symptoms in its early stages. As diabetic retinopathy gets worse, you will notice symptoms such as:

Diabetic retinopathy symptoms usually affect both eyes.

Link to Article on AAO Website:

https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/what-is-diabetic-retinopathy

About The Retina Service at Clarus Eye Centre: 

The Retina Service is a team of board-certified ophthalmologists who are highly trained subspecialists. Dr. Penny Reck and Dr. Jane Myung have completed medical school, medical internships, specialized ophthalmology training, and additional two-year fellowships in surgical retina. They are committed to patients, patients’ families, and referring doctors to provide specialized compassionate care.

At Clarus, we strive to offer excellent care for diseases of the retina, macula and vitreous by using advanced medical and surgical treatments. We look forward to seeing you during your visit.

Retina Services

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